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Checked Qualities in the SAP Cloud SDK Pipeline

The goal of the SAP Cloud SDK Pipeline is to help you build high quality applications which run on SAP Cloud Platform. To achieve this, the SAP Cloud SDK Pipeline checks qualities when building your application. This document summarizes the qualities that are checked by the SAP Cloud SDK Pipeline.

SAP Cloud SDK Specific Checks

Required Dependencies

For the SAP Cloud SDK specific checks to work, a few dependencies are required in unit and integration tests. The Cloud SDK pipeline will check if the odata-querylistener, rfc-querylistener, and the httpclient-listener dependencies are in the unit- and integration tests maven modules. If one of those dependencies is missing the pipeline will add the listeners-alldependency to the pom on the fly before executing the respective tests. That means for a user of the SDK it is not necessary to add those dependencies manually, but it can be beneficial to speed up the runtime of the pipeline since the pom.xml won't be changed if the dependencies are available.

Only Depend on Official API

This quality checks for usage of unofficial RFC and OData services. Only official API from the SAP API Business Hub should be used, since unofficial API don't provide any stable interfaces. A list of official API can be found in this blog post.

Resilient Network Calls

When building extension applications on SAP Cloud Platform, you always deal with a distributed system. There is at least two applications in this scenario: Your extension application, and SAP S/4HANA. In distributed systems, you may not assume that the network is reliable. To mitigate unreliable networks, a pattern called circuit breaker is commonly used. The idea is that you define a fallback action in case the network fails too often in a short time span. The fallback might use cached data, or default values, depending on what works best in your problem domain.

To implement this pattern, the SAP Cloud SDK integrates with the Hystrix library.

The version 3 of the SAP Cloud SDK integrates with the resilience4j library.

This quality check tests, that your remote calls are wrapped in a Hystrix command (v2) or in a ResilienceDecorator (v3).

The build will fail with a error message like Your project accesses downstream systems in a non-resilient manner if this is not the case.

More information on building resilient applications is available in this blog post.

Functional Tests

Ensuring the functional correctness of an application requires automated tests, which are part of the application code. Those qualities depend on the test code written by the application developer.

Unit Tests

The purpose of unit tests is to verify the correctness of a single unit in isolation. Other components than the unit under test may be mocked for testing purposes.

Place your unit tests in the appropriate Maven module (unit-tests) in order to make the pipeline run them automatically.

Integration Tests

Integration tests work on a higher level compared to unit tests. They should ensure that independently tested units work together as they need to. In the context of extension applications on SAP Cloud Platform, this means to ensure interoperability of your application with S/4HANA and interoperability between your application's backend and frontend component.

Place your integration tests in the appropriate Maven module (integration-tests) in order to make the pipeline run them automatically.

For more detailed description, refer to this blog post.

End-to-End Tests

End-to-end tests use your application, like a human user would by clicking buttons, entering text into forms and waiting for the result.

Place your end-to-end tests in the e2e-tests directory and ensure the ci-e2e script in package.json runs the right command. The output folder for the reports needs to be s4hana_pipeline/reports/e2e.

Code Coverage

Code coverage refers to how much of your application code is tested. The build fails, if the test coverage of your code drops below a certain threshold. To fix such a build failure, check which parts of your code are not tested yet and write missing tests.

The code coverage is tested using JaCoCo Java Code Coverage Library.

Non-Functional Tests


Performance relates to how quickly your application reacts under heavy load. For implementing performance tests, you can chose between to Open Source tools: JMeter and Gatling. If you're not familiar with both of them, we recommend using Gatling.

More information on testing the performance of your application is available in this blog post.

Static Code Checks

Static code checks look for potential issues in code without running the program. The SAP Cloud SDK Pipeline includes commonly used static checks using both PMD and SpotBugs.

In addition to the default checks of those tools, it adds the following SAP Cloud SDK specific checks:

  • To make post-mortem debugging possible
    • Log the exception in the catch block or in a called handling method or reference it in a new thrown exception
    • Reference the exception when logging inside a catch block
  • In order to allow a smooth transition from Neo to Cloud Foundry, you should use the platform independent abstractions provided by the SAP S4HANA Cloud SDK


The pipeline automatically executes linting of JavaScript and Typescript files, either by running a user defined script, or by executing ESLint with a general purpose configuration.

Custom linters can be implemented by development teams, if desired.

This allows to enforce a common coding style within a team of developers, thus making it easier to focus on the application code, rather then discussing minor style issues.

Third-Party Tools

The SAP Cloud SDK Pipeline also integrates with commercial third party code analyzer services, if you wish to use them. Currently, Checkmarx, WhiteSource, and SourceClear are available. For those scans to be enabled, they need to be configured in the pipeline configuration file.